Mastering the art of Agile: How to run effective sprint retrospectives

Dive into the fundamentals of running effective retrospectives - an essential process for continuous improvement in any project. Learn to draw insights from past performance and chart a clear path for future success.

Craft Author: Tom Norman
Tom Norman
An illustration of 3 people doing a sprint retrospectives
Key Takeaways

1. Embrace Continuous Improvement: Make retrospectives a routine part of your team's process. Use them as opportunities for learning, adapting, and improving. Remember, the power of retrospectives lies in the application of the insights gained.

2. Create a Safe and Collaborative Space: The success of a retrospective greatly depends on the team's willingness to share and receive feedback. Encourage openness and respect within your team to make the most of your retrospectives.

3. Experiment with Different Formats: Different retrospective formats offer unique perspectives and keep the process engaging. Don't hesitate to explore various formats and find the one that resonates most with your team.

What is a Retrospective?

Put simply, a retrospective is a team meeting that offers a chance to reflect on team performance and progress during a recent project. In project management, these projects are typically organized into “sprints” which are short 1-4 week periods in which specific work must be completed and ready for review (that’s why these meetings are commonly called “Sprint Retrospectives”).

Sprint retrospectives are a regular practice aimed at creating a safe space for team members to assess past actions, learn from them, and make necessary improvements for the future. They’re not just limited to a project management environment and can be a fantastic way for teams from any field to self-reflect and make iterative improvements for the future.

Benefits of a sprint retrospective

Sprint retrospectives are an invaluable part of any project. Here are just some of the benefits they provide:

Openness and transparency

Encouraging team members to openly share their thoughts and perspectives promotes a sense of trust and creates an environment where problems can be identified and resolved more quickly. Contrast this with a closed or judgmental environment where challenges aren't communicated or addressed; this leads to much more disruption and friction later down the line.

Fostering collaboration

In a sprint retrospective, team members work together to review the past sprint, exchange ideas, and come up with improvement plans. This active collaboration not only increases overall team efficiency but also promotes a sense of collective ownership and engagement in the project. Sprint retrospectives are rooted in the idea of a shared team goal where feedback is given not to criticize but to provide guidance to help the entire team make progress.

Identifying issues early

Sprint retrospectives provide an opportunity for the team to reflect on the challenges faced during the sprint. By doing so, the team can pinpoint issues and bottlenecks early, allowing them to take proactive measures to prevent similar issues in future sprints.

Encouraging continuous improvement

The primary aim of a sprint retrospective is to learn from the past and use that knowledge to improve future sprints. This nurtures a culture of continuous improvement, where team members are encouraged to always seek better ways of doing things. Over time, this mindset can significantly enhance productivity, team morale, and the quality of the work output. Its benefits can even be extended outside of work, too, and can lead to a more constructive and optimistic worldview in general.

Retrospective mistakes to avoid

To make the most out of sprint retrospectives, be sure to avoid the following pitfalls:

Misunderstanding the purpose

This can turn this invaluable meeting into an empty routine. Instead of being a forum for open discussion and learning, the risk is it could devolve into a “blame game” or a mere formality; both of which are fatal to the effectiveness of a retrospective and would fail to produce positive results. Understanding that the goal of a retrospective is to improve teamwork and workflows is crucial to fully harnessing its benefits.

Feedback overload

While diverse views and feedback are valuable, overloading the team with excessive or unfocused feedback can be counterproductive. It can lead to confusion, overwhelm, and a lack of clear action steps. The key is to prioritize feedback and focus on the most impactful changes the team can make in the next sprint.

Failure to build an action plan

A retrospective without a follow-up action plan is a missed opportunity. Without clear, actionable steps to address the issues identified, the team can become stuck in a cycle of identifying problems but never solving them. This can lead to frustration and stagnation, undermining the purpose of the retrospective.


Even the best action plans are meaningless if they're not implemented. When feedback and action items from retrospectives are consistently overlooked, it erodes trust in the process. Team members may begin to question the usefulness of retrospectives, and their engagement in these meetings may decline. Follow-through is essential to show that the team's efforts in retrospectives lead to real improvements.

“Retrospectives are one of the most important meetings for a team. Just as build, measure, learn iteration cycles are important in the product, they are important in the team. Every retrospective is an opportunity to understand how to perform better as a team." 

Dave Pier, Head of Product at Craft

How to perform a sprint retrospective

Conducting a sprint retrospective involves several key steps:

1. Prepare

Prior to the meeting, set a clear agenda and share it with the team. Ensure that everyone understands the purpose of the retrospective and is prepared to contribute to the discussion.

2. Set the scene

At the start of the meeting, remind everyone of the goal: to learn and improve. Encourage an open, respectful, and constructive conversation. This is also a good time to use an icebreaker to foster a positive atmosphere and to create a space where all team members feel comfortable getting involved.

3. Gather data

Ask team members to share their experiences, thoughts, and suggestions. A typical retrospective involves discussing:

  • What went well
  • What didn't go so well
  • What could be improved for next time

Later in this guide, we share a few other retrospective ideas which expand on and add variety to this simple framework.

4. Generate insights

Once the data is collected, it's time to delve deeper. Look for patterns, discuss causation, and brainstorm solutions. This is the heart of the retrospective where the team collaboratively finds ways to improve.

5. Decide on actions

From the insights generated, identify practical actions that the team can take in the next sprint to improve. Assign responsibility for these actions and set timelines for them.

6. Close the retrospective

Summarize the key takeaways, acknowledge contributions, and end on a positive note. Confirm follow-up actions and when they will be reviewed.

Remember, the retrospective should be a positive experience, focused on learning and improvement. It's about nurturing a supportive environment where each member feels valued and heard.

Tips for your next retrospective

Create a safe space

Team members need to feel comfortable sharing their thoughts, ideas, and potential criticisms without fear of judgment or negative repercussions. To create such an environment, emphasize the importance of respect and empathy, and discourage any form of negativity or blaming. As a facilitator, lead by example, showcasing active listening and constructive responses.

Schedule sprints

Ensure that everyone on the team attends the retrospective. The team should be reminded of the retrospective right at the start of the project so they can consciously collect relevant feedback and observations as the project progresses. It's important to make sure that retrospectives are kept intimate and include only team members on the call. Having external stakeholders or additional managers can affect the flow of the meeting and make it harder to communicate openly.

Ask the right questions

The questions asked during a retrospective guide the discussion and the learning process. Frame your questions to foster constructive conversation, focusing on learning and future improvements rather than dwelling on past mistakes. Questions should be open-ended to inspire in-depth discussion. For example, instead of asking "Did we meet our goals?" (yes/no answer), ask "How effectively did we meet our goals, and what can we do to improve?"

Use an icebreaker

A lot of people choose to start retrospectives with a fun and engaging icebreaker. This can help lighten the mood, energize the team, and encourage participation from all members. An icebreaker can be as simple as a quick round of 'two truths and a lie', a fun fact sharing, or a short team-building game.

How to finish a retrospective meeting

Closing a retrospective meeting effectively is essential to ensure its benefits are carried forward. Here are some points to remember when wrapping up a retrospective:

1. Summarize key points

Begin by summarizing the key points from the discussion. Highlight the main ideas, areas of improvement, and strategies the team agreed upon.

2. Clarify action items

Clearly state the action items that have been decided upon. Ensure everyone understands what they are, why they're important, and how they contribute to improvement.

3. Assign responsibility

Delegate responsibility for each action item to a team member or a group. This creates a sense of ownership and accountability for following through with the improvements.

4. Set deadlines

Specify a timeline for implementing each action item and when it will be reviewed. Anyone familiar with setting SMART goals will know how important it is for a goal to be time-bound; open-ended goals have the tendency to never get done.

5. Reiterate the purpose

Remind the team of the retrospective's purpose – to continuously learn and improve. Stress the importance of applying the learnings to future sprints.

6. Appreciate and encourage

Appreciate the team's engagement in the retrospective. Encourage them to approach the next sprint with the newfound insights and a positive outlook.

The true power of a retrospective lies in turning reflection into action. The insights gained in the meeting are of limited value unless they are used to shape future sprints. Commit to a culture of continuous improvement, and ensure each retrospective is a stepping stone towards a better, more efficient team.

Types of retrospectives you can use

Retrospectives all follow a general format, as mentioned earlier, but different approaches can make each session feel unique and cater to the specific needs and dynamics of your team. Some studies have shown that changing the format of retrospectives can actually increase their effectiveness and can mitigate common issues such as lack of structure and unequal participation. However, it’s important to note that it comes down to personal preference and games can have a negative impact on some team members. It's worth experimenting with various styles to keep the process fresh and discover what works best for your team:

Stop Start Continue

This method is all about categorizing actions. The team discusses what they should stop doing (ineffective practices), start doing (new approaches or ideas), and continue doing (successful actions). It provides a clear structure that helps to evaluate and adjust behaviors and strategies.


In this creative approach, the team visualizes their project as a sailboat. The anchor represents the issues holding them back; the wind in the sails represents the things propelling them forward; and the rocks ahead represent future risks or challenges. This method encourages metaphorical thinking and often surfaces unique insights.


The team evaluates their actions on five levels—start doing, stop doing, do more of, do less of, and keep doing. The starfish format provides a more nuanced evaluation of activities than the Stop Start Continue format.

Liked, Learned, Lacked, Longed For

The Liked, Learned, Lacked, Longed For (4Ls) retrospective encourages the team to reflect on their emotional responses as well as factual experiences during the sprint. This method can surface valuable insights about team morale and motivation, alongside process improvements.

Mad Sad Glad

In this emotionally focused retrospective, team members share what made them mad, sad, or glad during the sprint. This format is particularly effective at fostering emotional intelligence and empathy within the team.

Different retrospective formats have their unique benefits and may resonate differently with your team. The ultimate goal is to foster a space where the team can openly reflect, learn, and improve, therefore the winning format is the one that best supports this objective.

Sprint retrospective vs. sprint review

When it comes to project management, Agile is one of the most well-known approaches. The philosophy of Agile project management is to break down projects into smaller, iterative phases so it’s possible to continually re-assess, learn, and adapt plans throughout the project.

In Agile project management, there are two crucial meetings that occur at the end of each development phase: the Sprint Retrospective and the Sprint Review.

Sprint retrospective

As we've discussed in this guide, the Sprint Retrospective is an opportunity for the team to discuss what went well and what could be improved in their collaboration and workflows.

Sprint review

The Sprint Review, on the other hand, is an opportunity for the team to showcase the work that's been completed in the most recent sprint and to get feedback on it. Unlike the sprint retrospective, the review is focused on celebrating the accomplishments and output of the sprint, instead of focusing on team performance during the process of the sprint itself.


Retrospectives are an invaluable tool for teams to reflect, learn, and continuously improve. By creating an open and constructive space for feedback, retrospectives foster better collaboration and understanding within the team. They encourage a growth mindset, where mistakes are seen as learning opportunities and success is viewed as a path to further enhancements.

Retrospectives are not just about examining the past, but about utilizing these insights to drive future progress and innovation. They embody the essence of continuous improvement, and when facilitated effectively, retrospectives can lead to more efficient processes, enhanced team morale, and ultimately, better products or services.

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